“To whom will we give the kingdom?”

He is reported to have said:

“To the strongest.”

The exact last words of Alexander can’t be known for sure, and there are a number of potentially varying accounts. I choose to use this particular quote as the keystone for this small essay because:

The idea of the world’s greatest empire of the time being handed over to whoever had the strength and will to wield it is a disturbing but potentially prophetic idea about the nature of man, and the “state of nature” of which man is part.




  • There is no set of future conditions where safety, happiness, and survival are guaranteed.
  • Power will always be

How we could try to fully escape the state of nature:

  • Method 1 – Find the ultimate pattern of collaboration:
    • This isn’t a full escape, because:
  • Method 2 – The construction of a superintelligent singleton:
    • This isn’t a full escape, because:


(The Last Words of Alexander)


Gist: There is no escape from the state of nature. Uploading doesn’t do it. There are always winners who get to pick what they want to do. Even if we could “even out” all competitive instincts, expanding consciousness is likely to continually diverge (moral singularity) and collaboration seems unlikely. A singleton is the probably answer, so long as it can spin out the variants of fecundity that will allow it to persist.


Header image credit: Wikipedia